Ecotoxicological studies

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Field and semi-filed studies on honey bees

Ecotoxicological studies are obligatory to establish that there are no unacceptable risks to the environment.

The ecotoxicological field studies are an essential system to assess probable impacts of the plant protection products in the environment. The trials must be conducted with non-vertebrates and wild life – non-vertebrates tested are mainly non-target arthropods that represent no threat to a particular crop.

Non-target arthropods

Parasitic wasps:

  • Aphidius rhopalosiphi
  • Trichogramma cacoeciae
  • Encarsia formosa

Foliage-dwelling predators:

  • Chrysoperla carnea
  • Coccinella septempunctata
  • Episyrphus balteatus
  • Orius laevigatus

Predatory mites:

  • Typhlodromus pyri
  • Phytoseiulus persimilis

Ground-dwelling predators:

  • Poecilus cupreus
  • Pardosa spp
  • Aleochara bilineata